Life satisfaction and self-development initiatives among honorary teachers in primary schools

Erni Murniarti, Hotmaulina Sihotang, Itsar Bolo Rangka


This study examines the life satisfaction and self-development initiatives among non-permanent teachers (honorary) in primary schools. A survey was conducted on 163 honorary teachers in Jakarta and surrounding areas, using the Life Satisfaction and Personal Growth Initiative Scale. The data collected was processed using Rasch Model, and the main findings indicated the presence of life satisfaction and self-development initiatives amongst honorary teachers in primary schools. Furthermore, the Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis showed the occurrence of significantly different response pattern from 3 out of the 8 demographic aspects tested, including gender, monthly income received, and honorary teachers’ location. Specifically, male teachers reportedly had better abilities in taking steps to improve interpersonal lives, while honorary teachers earning IDR > 3 million/month (1) have more difficulties in taking roles according to subjective wishes, and; (2) tend to continue living as they are. These scenarios are comparably different amongst individuals earning IDR < 3 million/month. We also find that there are differences in the response of honorary teachers in primary schools in the areas of Jakarta, Depok, Tangerang, Bogor and Bekasi. In addition, the implications of the research findings are also an important part discussed in this article.


Life Satisfaction; Self-development initiatives; Honorary teachers; Primary schools; Indonesia; Rasch Model.

Full Text:



Abdurakhman, H. (2018, 05 November 2018). Guru Honorer dan Masalah Pendidikan Kita. DetikNews.Com.

Adiansyah, A. A. (2007). Guru Honorer, Sebuah Profesi atau Pengabdian? Retrieved from

Aisyah, A., & Rohmatun, R. (2019). Rasa Syukur Kaitannya dengan Kesejahteraan Psikologis pada Guru Honorer Sekolah Dasar. Proyeksi: Jurnal Psikologi, 13(2), 1-14.

Appleton, S., & Song, L. (2008). Life satisfaction in urban China: Components and determinants. World Development, 36(11), 2325-2340.

Ardiyanti, A. A. N. (2019). Analisis Faktor Kepuasan Kerja Guru Honorer di SD Negeri. Doctoral dissertation. Universitas Teknologi Yogyakarta.

Ariati, J. (2017). Subjective Well-Being (Kesejahteraan Subjektive) Dan Kepuasan Kerja Pada Staf Pengajar (Dosen) Di Lingkungan Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Diponegoro. Jurnal Psikologi Undip.

Baihaqki, U., & Jahja, R. S. (2019). Precarious side of working as non permanent teachers - Study of non permanent teachers in state junior high school, East Jakarta, Indonesia. Paper presented at the 33rd International Business Information Management Association Conference: Education Excellence and Innovation Management through Vision 2020, IBIMA 2019.

Balkis, A. S., & Masykur, A. M. (2017). Memahami Subjective Well-being Guru Honorer Sekolah Dasar Negeri (Sebuah Studi Kualitatif Fenomenologis). Empati, 5(2), 223-228.

Batjargal, B., Webb, J. W., Tsui, A., Arregle, J. L., Hitt, M. A., & Miller, T. (2019). The moderating influence of national culture on female and male entrepreneurs’ social network size and new venture growth. Cross Cultural and Strategic Management, 26(4), 490-521. doi:10.1108/CCSM-04-2018-0057

Besse, R., Howard, K., Gonzalez, S., & Howard, J. (2015). Major Depressive Disorder and Public-School Teachers: Evaluating Occupational and Health Predictors and Outcomes. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 20(2), 71-83. doi:10.1111/jabr.12043

Blau, I., Goldberg, S., & Benolol, N. (2019). Purpose and life satisfaction during adolescence: the role of meaning in life, social support, and problematic digital use. Journal of Youth Studies, 22(7), 907-925. doi:10.1080/13676261.2018.1551614

Boone, W. J., Staver, J. R., & Yale, M. S. (2013). Rasch analysis in the human sciences. USA: Springer.

Buchanan, E. A., & Hvizdak, E. E. (2009). Online survey tools: Ethical and methodological concerns of human research ethics committees. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, 4(2), 37-48.

Caldwell, J. K. (2000). A model of trauma with spirituality and religiosity: The mediating and moderating effects of personal growth initiative and openness to experience.

Cauffman, E., & MacIntosh, R. (2006). A Rasch Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument: Identifying Race and Gender Differential Item Functioning Among Juvenile Offenders. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(3), 502–521.

Çelik, O. T., & Kahraman, Ü. (2018). The relationship among teachers' general self-efficacy perceptions, job burnout and life satisfaction. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(12), 2721-2729. doi:10.13189/ujer.2018.061204

Cenkseven-Önder, F., & Sari, M. (2009). The quality of school life and burnout as predictors of subjective weil-being among teachers. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 9(3), 1223-1236. Retrieved from

Chang, E. C., Chang, O. D., Lee, J., Lucas, A. G., Li, M., Castro, K. M., . . . Jeglic, E. L. (2019). Going beyond ethnoracial discrimination and social support in accounting for psychological adjustment: Evidence for the importance of hope as a positive psychological construct in multiethnoracial adults. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 14(5), 681-693. doi:10.1080/17439760.2018.1510023

Cheng, K. H., & Tsai, C. C. (2019). A case study of immersive virtual field trips in an elementary classroom: Students’ learning experience and teacher-student interaction behaviors. Computers and Education, 140. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103600

Crossley, A., & Langdridge, D. (2005). Perceived sources of happiness: A network analysis. Journal of happiness studies, 6(2), 107-135.

Danim, S. (2012). Pengembangan Profesi Guru. Prenada Media.

Diener, E., & Diener, M. (2009). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. In Culture and well-being (pp. 71-91): Springer.

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of personality assessment, 49(1), 71-75. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13

Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of personality assessment, 49(1), 71-75.

Djati, S. P., & Khusaini, M. K. M. (2003). Kajian terhadap kepuasan kompensasi, komitmen organisasi, dan prestasi kerja. Jurnal manajemen dan Kewirausahaan, 5(1), 25-41.

Drago-Severson, E. (2012). Helping educators grow: Strategies and practices for leadership development. Harvard Education Press.

Erdemli, Ö. (2015). Teachers’ withdrawal behaviors and their relationship with work ethic. Egitim Arastirmalari - Eurasian Journal of Educational Research(60), 201-220. doi:10.14689/ejer.2015.60.12

Fischer, G. H., & Molenaar, I. W. (2012). Rasch models: Foundations, recent developments, and applications: Springer Science & Business Media.

Franken, R. E. (2002). Human motivation. . Belmont.

Friedman, E. M., Ruini, C., Foy, C. R., Jaros, L., Love, G., & Ryff, C. D. (2019). Lighten UP! A Community-Based Group Intervention to Promote Eudaimonic Well-Being in Older Adults: A Multi-Site Replication with 6 Month Follow-Up. Clinical Gerontologist, 42(4), 387-397. doi:10.1080/07317115.2019.1574944

Garbyal, S., & Kaur, S. (2019). A study on job satisfaction of government school teachers. Journal of Social Sciences, 59(1-3), 28-35. doi:10.31901/24566756.2019/59.1-3.2239

Guérin, E., Strachan, S., & Fortier, M. (2019). Exercise and well-being: Relationships with perceptions of exercise identity-behaviour consistency, affective reactions to exercise and passion. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17(5), 445-458. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2017.1421681

Hagquist, C., Andrich, D. (2017). Recent advances in analysis of differential item functioning in health research using the Rasch model. Health Qual Life Outcomes 15, 181.

Hofmann, C., & Venetz, M. (2017). The influence of past and present experiences with peer relations in school on perceived social support. Zeitschrift fur Entwicklungspsychologie und Padagogische Psychologie, 49(2), 63-72. doi:10.1026/0049-8637/a000169

Hurlock, E. B. (2001). Developmental psychology: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Ifdil, I., Fadli, R. P., Zola, N., Erwinda, L., Sari, A., Churnia, E., . . . Barseli, M. (2019). Chromotherapy: An alternative treatment for mathematics anxiety among elementary school students. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference on Advance and Scientific Innovation, ICASI 2018.

Ilyas, A., Ifdil, I., Ardi, Z., Fadli, R. P., Erwinda, L., Churnia, E., . . . Zola, N. (2018). Validation of AUM software: A counselor tool for analyse human problems on counseling and educational practice. Paper presented at the 2018 Workshop on Multidisciplinary and Its Applications: Applied Mathematics, Computer Science, Information Systems, and Information Technology, WMA-Mathcomtech 2018.

Iverson, R. D., & Maguire, C. (2000). The relationship between job and life satisfaction: Evidence from a remote mining community. Human relations, 53(6), 807-839.

Ivtzan, I., Chan, C. P. L., Gardner, H. E., & Prashar, K. (2013). Linking religion and spirituality with psychological well-being: Examining self-actualisation, meaning in life, and personal growth initiative. Journal of religion and health, 52(3), 915-929.

Jaques, E. (2013). Measurement of responsibility: A study of work, payment, and individual capacity: Routledge.

Jones-Rincon, A., & Howard, K. J. (2019). Anxiety in the workplace: A comprehensive occupational health evaluation of anxiety disorder in public school teachers. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 24(1). doi:10.1111/jabr.12133

Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits—self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability—with job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 80.

Khotimah, K. (2009). Diskriminasi gender terhadap perempuan dalam sektor pekerjaan. Jurnal studi gender dan anak, 4(1), 158-164.

Lin, H. M., & Hwang, Y. J. (2016). A study of job satisfaction of elementary/secondary school teachers in taiwan-comparison with other occupations. Contemporary Educational Research Quarterly, 24(3), 29-64. doi:10.6151/CERQ.2016.2403.02

Linacre, J. M. (1997). KR-20 or Rasch reliability: Which tells the “truth”. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 11(3), 580-581.

Linacre, J. M. (2006). WINSTEPS Rasch measurement computer program. Chicago: WINSTEPS. com.

Linacre, J. M. (2013). DIF Sample Size Nomogram. Rasch Meas Trans, 26(4), 1392-1402.

Linacre, J. M., & Wright, B. D. (2000). Winsteps. URL: http://www.winsteps. com/index. htm [accessed 2013-06-27][WebCite Cache].

Linsiya, R. W. (2015, 2015). Perbedaan Kepuasan Hidup antara Mahasiswa Strata 1 (S1) dan Strata 2 (S2). Paper presented at the Psychology Forum UMM, Malang.

Lucas, R. E., Clark, A. E., Georgellis, Y., & Diener, E. (2004). Unemployment alters the set point for life satisfaction. Psychological science, 15(1), 8-13.

Ludlow, L. H., & Haley, S. M. (1995). Rasch model logits: Interpretation, use, and transformation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55(6), 967-975.

Maranto, R., Teodoro, M. P., Carroll, K., & Cheng, A. (2019). Gendered Ambition: Men’s and Women’s Career Advancement in Public Administration. American Review of Public Administration, 49(4), 469-481. doi:10.1177/0275074018804564

Marotta, L. (2019). Teachers' contractual ties and student achievement: The effect of temporary and multiple-school teachers in Brazil. Comparative Education Review. doi:10.1086/703981

Massat, C. R., McKay, C., & Moses, H. (2009). Monkeying Around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work. School Social Work Journal (Follmer Group), 33(2).

Moksnes, U. K., Løhre, A., Lillefjell, M., Byrne, D. G., & Haugan, G. (2016). The Association Between School Stress, Life Satisfaction and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Life Satisfaction as a Potential Mediator. Social Indicators Research, 125(1), 339-357. doi:10.1007/s11205-014-0842-0

Nosikov, A., & Gudex, C. (2003). . Development of a common instrument for quality of life. EUROHIS: Developing common instruments for health surveys, 57, 145.

Nugraheni, A. S., & Prastiti, W. D. (2016). Hubungan Antara Dukungan Sosial dengan Psychological Well Being pada Guru Honorer Daerah.

Odacı, H., & Kınık, Ö. (2019). Evaluation of Early Adolescent Subjective Well-Being in Terms of Submissive Behavior and Self-Esteem. Journal of Social Service Research, 45(4), 558-569. doi:10.1080/01488376.2018.1481175

Pambudi, T., Ningsih, D. S., & Taufiqurrahman, T. (2017). Pengaruh Kepemimpinan, Manajemen Pengetahuan Dan Budaya Organisasi Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Pada PT. Pelabuhan Indonesia (Persero) I Cabang Kota Dumai. Doctoral dissertation. Riau University.

Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The satisfaction with life scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(2), 137-152.

Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2009). Review of the satisfaction with life scale. In Assessing well-being (pp. 101-117): Springer.

Peterson, C., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction: The full life versus the empty life. Journal of happiness studies, 6(1), 25-41.

Prantiasih, A. (2012). Hak Asasi Manusia Bagi Perempuan. Jurnal Pendidikan Pancasila Dan Kewarganegaraan, 25(1).

Rahayu, A. W. (2015). Perempuan dan belenggu peran kultural. Jurnal Perempuan.

Rangka, I. B., Kasmanah, K., Solihatun, S., Folastri, S., Sjamsuri, A., Setiadi, A., . . . Bakti, B. (2019). Assessing of student's performance and their math test in Islamic school: A Rasch perspective. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference on Advance and Scientific Innovation, ICASI 2018.

Richards, E., & Acker, S. (2006). Collegiality and gender in elementary school teachers’ workplace cultures: A tale of two projects. In Women and Teaching: Global Perspectives on the Feminization of a Profession (pp. 51-79): Palgrave Macmillan.

Robitschek, C. (1998). Personal growth initiative: The construct and its measure. Measurement and evaluation in counseling and development, 30(4), 183.

Robitschek, C. (1999). Further validation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale. Measurement and evaluation in counseling and development.

Robitschek, C., Ashton, M. W., Spering, C. C., Geiger, N., Byers, D., Schotts, G. C., & Thoen, M. A. (2012). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale–II. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(2), 274-287. doi:10.1037/a0027310

Robitschek, C., & Cook, S. W. (1999). The influence of personal growth initiative and coping styles on career exploration and vocational identity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54(1), 127-141.

Robitschek, C., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2009). Keyes's model of mental health with personal growth initiative as a parsimonious predictor. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(2), 321.

Rokhman, A. N. (2016). Hubungan Antara Kepuasan Kerja Dengan Kesejahteraan Psikologis Pada Guru Honorer Di Kecamatan Gamping Sleman Yogyakarta.

Rouquette A, Hardouin J-B, Vanhaesebrouck A, Sébille V, Coste J. (2019). Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in composite health measurement scale: Recommendations for characterizing DIF with meaningful consequences within the Rasch model framework. PLoS ONE 14(4): e0215073.

Ryff, C. D. (1995). Psychological well-being in adult life. Current directions in psychological science, 4(4), 99-104.

Salces-Cubero, I. M., Ramírez-Fernández, E., & Ortega-Martínez, A. R. (2019). Strengths in older adults: differential effect of savoring, gratitude and optimism on well-being. Aging & Mental Health, 23(8), 1017-1024. doi:10.1080/13607863.2018.1471585

Samsuni, S. (2017). Manajemen sumber daya manusia. Al-Falah: Jurnal Ilmiah Keislaman dan Kemasyarakatan, 17(1), 113-124.

Sari, W. P. (2016). Pengaruh Gaji dan Motivasi terhadap Kinerja Guru Pada SMA Swasta Bagan Sinembah, Rokan Hilir, Riau. TINGKAP, 12(1), 65-81.

Sholehati, P., & Hadijah, H. S. (2019). Determinan Kinerja Guru: Kompensasi dan Lingkungan Kerja. Jurnal Pendidikan Manajemen Perkantoran (JPManper), 4(2), 168-175.

Smith Jr, E. V. (2001). Evidence for the reliability of measures and validity of measure interpretation: a Rasch measurement perspective. Journal of applied measurement.

Smith, T. W. (2007). Job satisfaction in the United States.

Snyder, C. R. (1999). Hope, goal-blocking thoughts, and test-related anxieties. Psychological reports, 84(1), 206-208.

Snyder, C. R., Parenteau, S. C., Shorey, H. S., Kahle, K. E., & Berg, C. (2002). Hope as the underlying process in the psychotherapeutic change process. International Gestalt Journal.

Splett, J. W., Garzona, M., Gibson, N., Wojtalewicz, D., Raborn, A., & Reinke, W. M. (2019). Teacher Recognition, Concern, and Referral of Children’s Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems. School Mental Health, 11(2), 228-239. doi:10.1007/s12310-018-09303-z

Stevic, C. R., & Ward, R. M. (2008). Initiating personal growth: The role of recognition and life satisfaction on the development of college students. Social Indicators Research, 89(3), 523.

Suh, E., Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Triandis, H. C. (1998). The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: Emotions versus norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(2), 482.

Sumintono, B., & Widhiarso, W. (2014). Aplikasi model Rasch untuk penelitian ilmu-ilmu sosial (edisi revisi). Bandung: Trim Komunikata Publishing House.

Sumintono, B., & Widhiarso, W. (2015). Aplikasi pemodelan rasch pada assessment pendidikan: Trim Komunikata.

Suranata, K., Atmoko, A., Hidayah, N., Rangka, I. B., & Ifdil, I. (2017). Risks and Resilience of Students with Hearing Impairment in An Inclusive School at Bengkala, Bali, Indonesia/Bengkalos Inkliuzinės Mokyklos Mokinių, Turinčių Klausos Sutrikimą, Patiriama Rizika Ir Jų Atsparumas. Specialusis Ugdymas/Special Education, 2(37), 165-214.

Suryanto, D. H. (2019). Apa Peran Guru Honorer? Retrieved from

Syukur, A. (2015). Pilihan Rasional Guru Honorer (Studi Pada Guru Honorer Sekolah Dasar Negeri di Kota Jogjakarta Wilayah Utara). Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jogyakarta.

Tafqihan, Z., & Suryanto, S. (2014). Pengaruh kompetensi guru terhadap komitmen profesional dan dampaknya pada kinerja serta kepuasan kerja guru matematika SMP dan MTs. Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika, 1(2), 285-297.

Tennant, A., McKenna, S. P., & Hagell, P. (2004). Application of Rasch analysis in the development and application of quality of life instruments. Value in Health, 7, S22-S26.

VandenHeuvel, A., & Wooden, M. (1997). Self-employed contractors and job satisfaction. Journal of Small Business Management, 35(3), 11.

Verme, P. (2011). Life satisfaction and income inequality: The World Bank.

von Davier, M. (2014). Rasch Analysis. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (pp. 5393-5396). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Waclawski, E. (2012). How I use it: Survey monkey. Occupational Medicine, 62(6), 477-477.

Wangi, E. N., & Annisaa, F. R. (2015, 2015). Subjective well-being pada guru honorer di SMP Terbuka 27 bandung. Paper presented at the Seminar Psikologi dan Kemanusiaan.

Ward, A., Lyubomirsky, S., Sousa, L., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Can’t quite commit: Rumination and uncertainty. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(1), 96-107.

Wibowo, D. E. (2011). Peran ganda perempuan dan kesetaraan gender. Universitas Pekalongan.

Wu, M., Tam, H. P., & Jen, T. H. (2016). Educational measurement for applied researchers. Theory into practice. Springer.

Wright, B. D. (1977). Solving measurement problems with the Rasch model. Journal of educational measurement, 14(2), 97-116.

Youssef, C. M., & Luthans, F. (2007). Positive organizational behavior in the workplace: The impact of hope, optimism, and resilience. Journal of management, 33(5), 774-800.

Zufiaurre, B., & Pérez de Villarreal, M. (2016). Positive psychology for positive pedagogical actions: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 ISSN: 1305-3515