The impact of instructional leadership on Indonesian elementary teacher efficacy

Sumiati - -, Wuttichai - Niemted

Abstract


The purposes of this research were to study the relationship between principal instructional leadership and teacher efficacy as perceived by teachers in Indonesian private elementary schools and also examined which principal instructional practices affect teacher efficacy.  A survey was conducted to 339 teachers in twenty private elementary schools, from ten provinces in Indonesia. Descriptive, correlation and structural equation modeling analyses were used to analyze the data. The findings showed that instructional leadership practices as perceived by teachers positively related teacher self-efficacy as well as teacher efficacy on group skills. Moreover, in the Indonesian private school context, principal instructional leadership practices, especially on the component of encouraging school climate tended to be more influential on teacher efficacy group skills while the components of establishing goals and ensuring the teaching and learning process determined teacher self-efficacy. Implications and limitations were also discussed.

This study was conducted with two purposes: firstly, to investigate the relationship between principal instructional leadership and teacher efficacy as perceived by teachers in Indonesian private elementary schools and, secondly, to examine which principal instructional practices affect teacher efficacy. It employed a quantitative survey design by incorporating a Principal Instructional leadership scale, teacher efficacy on group skill scale, and teacher self-efficacy scale for data collection. The sample included 339 teachers from 20 private elementary schools in ten provinces in Indonesia. Descriptive, correlation, and structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses were used to analyze the data. Findings showed that instructional leadership practices, as perceived by teachers, were positively related to teacher self-efficacy as well as teacher efficacy on group skills. Moreover, in the Indonesian private school context, principal instructional leadership practices, especially on the component of encouraging school climate, tended to be more influential on teacher efficacy group skills, while the components of establishing goals and ensuring the teaching and learning process determined teacher self-efficacy.


Keywords


instructional leadership; teacher self-efficacy; Indonesian private elementary schools

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alam, A., & Ahmad, M. (2017). The impact of instructional leadership, professional communities and extra responsibilities for teachers on student achievement. International Journal of Educational Management, 31(3), 383-395.

Alig-Mielcarek, J., & Hoy, W. K. (2005). Instructional leadership: Information Age Publishers: Greenwich, CT, USA.

Bamburg, J. D., & Andrews, R. L. (1991). School goals, principals, and achievement. School effectiveness and school improvement, 2(3), 175-191.

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American psychologist, 37(2), 122.

Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.

Bedi, A. S., & Garg, A. (2000). The effectiveness of private versus public schools: The case of Indonesia. Journal of Development Economics, 61(2), 463-494.

Bellibas, M. S., & Liu, Y. (2017). Multilevel analysis of the relationship between principals’ perceived practices of instructional leadership and teachers’ self-efficacy perceptions. Journal of Educational Administration, 55(1), 49-69.

Blase, J., & Blase, J. (2000). Effective instructional leadership: Teachers’ perspectives on how principals promote teaching and learning in schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 38(2), 130-141.

Blasé, J., & Blase, J. (2003). Handbook of instructional leadership: How successful principals promote teaching and learning: Corwin Press.

Calik, T., Sezgin, F., Kavgaci, H., & Cagatay Kilinc, A. (2012). Examination of Relationships between Instructional Leadership of School Principals and Self-Efficacy of Teachers and Collective Teacher Efficacy. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(4), 2498-2504.

Cansoy, R., & Parlar, H. (2018). Examining the relationship between school principals' instructional leadership behaviors, teacher self-efficacy, and collective teacher efficacy. International Journal of Educational Management, 32(4), 550-567.

Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students' academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of school psychology, 44(6), 473-490.

Chesnut, S. R., & Burley, H. (2015). Self-efficacy as a predictor of commitment to the teaching profession: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 15, 1-16.

Chong, W. H., & Ong, M. Y. (2016). The mediating role of collective teacher efficacy beliefs in the relationship between school climate and teacher self-efficacy across mainstream and special needs schools Asia-Pacific perspectives on teacher self-efficacy (pp. 19-35): Brill Sense.

Coladarci, T. (1992). Teachers' sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching. The Journal of experimental education, 60(4), 323-337.

Duyar, I., Gumus, S., & Sukru Bellibas, M. (2013). Multilevel analysis of teacher work attitudes: The influence of principal leadership and teacher collaboration. International Journal of Educational Management, 27(7), 700-719.

Gibson, S., & Dembo, M. H. (1984). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of educational psychology, 76(4), 569.

Glanz, J. (2005). What every principal should know about instructional leadership: Corwin Press.

Goddard, R. D., Hoy, W. K., & Hoy, A. W. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and impact on student achievement. American educational research journal, 37(2), 479-507.

Goddard, R. D., Hoy, W. K., & Hoy, A. W. (2004). Collective efficacy beliefs: Theoretical developments, empirical evidence, and future directions. Educational researcher, 33(3), 3-13.

Grobler, B. (2013). The school principal as Instructional Leader: A structural equation model. Education as Change, 17(sup1), S177-S199.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2013). Multivariate data analysis: Pearson new international edition: Pearson Higher Ed.

Hallinger, P. (2005). Instructional leadership and the school principal: A passing fancy that refuses to fade away. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 4(3), 221-239.

Hallinger, P. (2010). Developing instructional leadership Developing successful leadership (pp. 61-76): Springer.

Hallinger, P. (2011). Leadership for learning: Lessons from 40 years of empirical research. Journal of Educational Administration, 49(2), 125-142.

Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. (1985). Assessing the instructional management behavior of principals. The Elementary School Journal, 86(2), 217-247.

Harris, A., Day, C., & Hadfield, M. (2003). Teachers' perspectives on effective school leadership. Teachers and teaching, 9(1), 67-77.

Heck, R. H., Larsen, T. J., & Marcoulides, G. A. (1990). Instructional leadership and school achievement: Validation of a causal model. Educational Administration Quarterly, 26(2), 94-125.

Hu, L. t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55.

Künsting, J., Neuber, V., & Lipowsky, F. (2016). Teacher self-efficacy as a long-term predictor of instructional quality in the classroom. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 31(3), 299-322.

Lee, M., Walker, A., & Ling Chui, Y. (2012). Contrasting effects of instructional leadership practices on student learning in a high accountability context. Journal of Educational Administration, 50(5), 586-611.

Liu, S., & Hallinger, P. (2018). Principal instructional leadership, teacher self-efficacy, and teacher professional learning in China: testing a mediated-effects model. Educational Administration Quarterly, 54(4), 501-528.

Marks, H. M., & Printy, S. M. (2003). Principal leadership and school performance: An integration of transformational and instructional leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 39(3), 370-397.

May, H., & Supovitz, J. A. (2011). The scope of principal efforts to improve instruction. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(2), 332-352.

McEwan, E. K. (2003). Steps to effective instructional leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

MOEC. (2016). Indonesia Educational Statistics in brief 2015/ 2016 Retrieved from www.kemndikbud.go.id.

MOEC. (2018). Overview of Primary School (PS) by Status of School. Retrieved from http://statistik.data.kemdikbud.go.id/

Qian, H., Walker, A., & Li, X. (2017). The west wind vs the east wind: instructional leadership model in China. Journal of Educational Administration, 55(2), 186-206.

Raihani. (2008). An Indonesian model of successful school leadership. Journal of Educational Administration, 46(4), 481-496.

Retnawati, H., Munadi, S., Arlinwibowo, J., Wulandari, N. F., & Sulistyaningsih, E. (2017). Teachers’ difficulties in implementing thematic teaching and learning in elementary schools. The New Educational Review, 48, 201-212.

Robinson, V. M., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(5), 635-674.

Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effects of coaching on student achievement. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'education, 51-65.

Schwarzer, R., & Hallum, S. (2008). Perceived teacher self‐efficacy as a predictor of job stress and burnout: Mediation analyses. Applied psychology, 57, 152-171.

Sehgal, P., Nambudiri, R., & Mishra, S. K. (2017). Teacher effectiveness through self-efficacy, collaboration and principal leadership. International Journal of Educational Management, 31(4), 505-517.

Shatzer, R. H., Caldarella, P., Hallam, P. R., & Brown, B. L. (2014). Comparing the effects of instructional and transformational leadership on student achievement: Implications for practice. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 42(4), 445-459.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2007). Dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy, and teacher burnout. Journal of educational psychology, 99(3), 611.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2010). Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout: A study of relations. Teaching and teacher Education, 26(4), 1059-1069.

Sofo, F., Fitzgerald, R., & Jawas, U. (2012). Instructional leadership in Indonesian school reform: overcoming the problems to move forward. School Leadership & Management, 32(5), 503-522.

Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (1998). Social cognitive theory and self-efficacy: Goin beyond traditional motivational and behavioral approaches. Organizational dynamics, 26(4), 62-74.

Sulisworo, D., Nasir, R., & Maryani, I. (2017). Identification of teachers’ problems in Indonesia on facing global community. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 6(2), 81-90.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Barr, M. (2004). Fostering student learning: The relationship of collective teacher efficacy and student achievement. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 3(3), 189-209.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and teacher Education, 17(7), 783-805.

Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of educational research, 68(2), 202-248.

Walker, J., & Slear, S. (2011). The impact of principal leadership behaviors on the efficacy of new and experienced middle school teachers. NASSP Bulletin, 95(1), 46-64.

Weber, J. R. (1987). Instructional Leadership: Contexts and Challenges. OSSC Bulletin, 31(3), 3.

Zakeri, A., Rahmany, R., & Labone, E. (2015). Teachers’ self-and collective efficacy: The case of novice English language teachers. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(1), 158-167.

Zheng, X., Yin, H., & Li, Z. (2018). Exploring the relationships among instructional leadership, professional learning communities and teacher self-efficacy in China. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 47(6), 1-17.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 ISSN: 1305-3515