Investigating Science and Mathematics Teacher Candidate’s Perceptions of TPACK-21 Based on 21st Century Skills

Bülent Başaran


Twenty-first century teachers are expected to have the ability to benefit from collaboration, problem solving, creative and innovative thinking, information and communication technology (ICT) applications. Teachers need to know various pedagogical approaches and appropriate ways to use ICT to support the development of twenty-first century skills of their students. The framework of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) provides a theoretical model for studying the way teachers use ICT in education. The purpose of this study is to reveal the relationships of the components that constitute the TPACK-21 scale. The data were collected from 254 teacher candidates at a state university in Turkey from the science and math departments in the academic year of 2017-2018. For this purpose, the relationships between the components/factors that constitute the TPACK-21 scale were examined with a model. Relational survey model was used in the research. In the research, the scale developed by Valtonen et al. (2017) determining prospective teachers’ 21st century skills of TPACK-21 was used. The data obtained in the study were analyzed by structural equation modeling. The direct and positive effects of Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK21) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK21) from external variables consisting of binary knowledge fields of the research are seen on TPACK-21. These variables explain 74% of the change in TPACK-21. TCK is the variable that affects TPACK-21 the most. Another important result reached in this study is that teachers' content knowledge (CK) directly and positively affect TCK and PCK21 and this effect is greater than the effect of technological knowledge (TK) and pedagogical knowledge (PK21). When the results of this research are evaluated, a gradual model including CK and PCK21 can be proposed instead of a direct technology-based approach to professional development programs developed to increase 21st century competencies of teachers’ TPACK-21s.


21st Century Skills, TPACK, Structural Equation Modeling, PLS-SEM, ICT

Full Text:



Akarsu, B., & Güven, E. (2014). Fen ve teknoloji öğretmen adaylarının teknolojik pedagojik alan bilgilerinin incelenmesi. Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences, 13(2), 515-524.

Aksayan, S. & Gözüm, S. (2002). Kültürlerarası ölçek uyarlaması için rehber I: Ölçek uyarlama aşamaları ve dil uyarlaması. Hemşirelik Araştırma Geliştirme Dergisi, 4(1), 9-14.

Anastasi, A. (1982) Psychological testing. (5th ed.) New York: Macrnillan.

Ansyari, M. (2012). The development and evaluation of a professional development arrangement for technology integration to enhance communicative approach in English language teaching (master’s thesis). Faculty of Behavioral Science, University of Twente.

Applied Educational Systems. (2018). What are 21st century skills? Retrieved february 31,2019 from

Appleton, K. (1995). “Student Teachers’ Confidence to Teach Science: Is More Science Knowledge Necessary to Improve Self‐Confidence?” International Journal of Science Education 17 (357–369).

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 16(1), 74-94.

Başal, A. (2015). English language teachers and technology education. Journal of Theory

and Practice in Education, 11(4), 1496–1511.

Bhatti, M. N. Ahmad, & S. A. Khan,(2014). “Trends towards Internetuse among College Teachers of Lodhan District South Punjab, Pakistan,” Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), vol. 3, pp. 1-16,.

Binkley, M., Erstad, O., Herman, J., Raizen, S., Ripley, M., Miller-Ricci, M., & Rumble, M. (2012). Defining twenty-first century skills. In P. Griffin, B. McGaw, & E. Care (Eds.), Assessment and Teaching of twentyfirst Century Skills (pp. 17–66). New York: Springer

Büyüköztürk, Ş., Akgün, Ö. E., Demirel, F., Karadeniz, Ş., & Çakmak, E. K. (2015). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri. Pegem Akademi.

Canbazoğlu, S., Demirelli, H., & Kavak, N. (2010). Fen bilgisi öğretmen adaylarının maddenin tanecikli yapısı ünitesine ait konu alan bilgileri ile pedagojik alan bilgileri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. İlköğretim Online, 9(1), sayfa no???

Cengiz, D. (2013). Eğitimde BİT’in betimleyici ve kuralcı yönleri-FATİH projesi örneği. In XVIII.Türkiye’de İnternet Konferansı (pp. 201-205). İstanbul.

Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). Examining the technological pedagogical content knowledge of Singapore pre-service teachers with a large-scale survey. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26 (6), 563–573.

Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., Tsai, C. C., & Tan, L. W. L. (2011a). Modeling primary school pre-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) for meaningful learning with information and communication technology (ICT). Computers & Education, 57 (1),1184–1193.

Chai, C. S., Ng, E. M., Li, W., Hong, H. Y., & Koh, J. H. L. (2013a). Validating and modelling technological pedagogical content knowledge framework among Asian preservice teachers. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 29(1), 41-53.

Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2013b). A review of technological pedagogical content knowledge.Educational Technology & Society, 16(2), 31-51.

Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). Facilitating preservice teachers' development of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK). Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 13(4), 63-73.

Chai, J. Hwee, & C.C. Tsai, (2011b). “Exploring the Factor Structure of the Constructs of Technological, Pedagogical, Content Knowledge (TPACK),” The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 20(3). 595–603.

Cox, S., & Graham, C. R. (2009). Using an elaborated model of the TPACK framework to analyze and depict teacher knowledge. TechTrends, 53(5), 60-69.

Figg, C., & Jaipal, K. (2012). TPACK-in-Practice: Developing 21st century teacher knowledge. In Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 4683-4689). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Fiksl, M., Flogie, A., & Abersek, B. (2017). Innovative teaching/learning Methods to Improve Science, technology and engineering classroom climate and interest. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 16(6), 1009-1019.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Gallardo-V azquez, D., & Sanchez-Hernandez, M.I., (2014). Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility for competitive success at a regional level. J. Clean. Prod. 72, 14e22.

Graham, C. R., Burgoyne, N., Cantrell, P., Smith, L., St. Clair, L., & Harris, R. (2009). TPACK development in science teaching: Measuring the TPACK confidence of in-service science teachers. TechTrends, Special Issue on TPACK, 53(5), 70-79.

Gordon, J., Halasz, G., Krawczyk, M., Leney, T., Michel, A., Pepper, D., & Wiśniewski, J. (2009). Key competences in Europe. Opening doors for lifelong learning. No. 87. Warsaw: CASE - Center for Social and Economic Research.

Günbatar, S. A., Damar, S. Y., & Boz, Y. (2017). Teknolojik pedagojik alan bilgisi (TPAB) kavramının yakından incelenmesi: İlköğretim fen bilgisi öğretmen adaylarının TPAB’ının

modellemesi. İlköğretim Online, 16(3), 917-934.

Guzey, S. S., & Roehrig, G. H. (2009). Teaching science with technology: Case studies of science teachers’ development of technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 25-45.

Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M., (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares

Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Hammond, M., Reynolds, L., & Ingram, J. (2011). How and why do student teachers use ICT?. Journal of Computer assisted learning, 27(3), 191-203.

Harris, J. B., & Hofer, M. J. (2011). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in action: A descriptive study of secondary teachers’ curriculum-based, technology-related instructional planning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(3), 211-229.

Harring, J.R., Weiss, B.A., & Li, M., (2015). Assessing spurious interaction effects in structural equation modeling. Educ. Psychol. Meas. 75, 721-738.

Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: a review of four recent studies. Strategic management journal, 20(2), 195-204.

Hwang, G.H., Jeong, S.K., & Ban, Y.U., (2016). Causal relationship of eco-industrial park development factors: a structural equation analysis. J. Clean. Prod. 114, (180-188).

Irmak, M., & Yilmaz Tüzün, Ö. (2019). Investigating pre-service science teachers’ perceived technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) regarding genetics. Research in Science & Technological Education, 37(2), 127-146.

Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Toward a design theory of problem solving. Educational Technology Research and Development, 48(4), 63-85.

Jordan, K. (2011). Beginning teacher knowledge: Results from a self-assessed TPACK survey. Australian Educational Computing, 26(1), 16-26.

Kind, V. (2015). “On the Beauty of Knowing Then Not Knowing. Re-Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Science Education.” In Re-Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Science Education, edited by A. Berry, P. Friedrichsen, and J. Loughran, 178–195. New York: Routledge.

Kıray, S. A., Çelik, İ., & Çolakoğlu, M. H. (2018). TPACK Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Science Teachers: A Structural Equation Modeling Study. Education & Science/Egitim ve Bilim, 43(195).

Kleickmann, T., Richter, D., Kunter, M., Elsner, J., Besser, M., Krauss, S., & Baumert, J. (2013). Teachers’ content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge: The role of structural differences in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(1), 90-106.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. AACTE Committee on Innovation and Technology (Ed.), The handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators (pp. 3-29). Mah—wah, N]: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., Bouck, E. C., DeSchryver, M., Kereluik, K., Shin, T. S., & Wolf, L. G. (2011). Deep-play: Developing TPACK for 21st century teachers. International Journal of Learning Technology, 6(2), 146-163.

Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)?. Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 9(1), 60-70.

Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., & Lim, W. Y. (2017). Teacher professional development for TPACK-21CL: Effects on teacher ICT integration and student outcomes. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55(2), 172-196.

Kuei, C., Madu, C.N., Chow, W.S. & Chen, Y., (2015). Determinants and associated performance improvement of green supply chain management in China. J. Clean. Prod. 95, (163-173).

Kuru Gönen, S. İ. (2019). A qualitative study on a situated experience of technology integration: reflections from pre-service teachers and students. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(3), 163-189.

Laguir, I., Stagliano, R., & Elbaz, J., (2015). Does corporate social responsibility affect corporate tax aggressiveness? J. Clean. Prod. 107, (662-675). 1016/j.jclepro.2015.05.059.

Lambert, J., & Cuper, P. (2009). Multimedia technologies and familiar spaces: 21st century teaching for 21st century learners. Contemporary Issues in Technology & Teacher Education, 8(3), 264–276.

LeBlanc, J. K., Cavlazoglu, B., Scogin, S. C., & Stuessy, C. L. (2017). The art of teacher talk: Examining intersections of the strands of scientific proficiencies and inquiry. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology (IJEMST), 5(3), 171-186. doi:10.18404/ijemst.52368

Lehiste, P. (2015). The impact of a professional development program on in-service teacher’s TPACK: A study from Estonia. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 66, (18-28).

Lim, C. P., & Chai, C. S. (2008). Rethinking classroom-oriented instructional development models to mediate instructional planning in technology enhanced learning environments. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(8), 2002-2013.

Loughran J, Milroy P, Berry A, Gunstone R, & Mulhall P (2001). Documenting science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through PaP-eRs. Research in Science Education. 1;31(2):289-307

McCrory, R. (2008). “Science, Technology, and Teaching: The Topic-Specific Challenges of TPCK in Science.” In Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) for Educators, edited by the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE) Committee on Innovation and Technology, 193–206. New York: Routledge.

Merc¸, A. (2015). Using technology in the classroom: A study with Turkish pre-service

EFL teachers. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 14(2),


Mtebe, J. S., Mbwilo, B., & Kissaka, M. M. (2016). Factors influencing teachers’ use of multimedia enhanced content in secondary schools in Tanzania. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(2).

Nejati, M., Rabiei, S., & Chiappetta Jabbour, C.J., (2017). Envisioning the invisible: understanding the synergy between green human resource management and green supply chain management in manufacturing firms in Iran in light of the moderating effect of employees' resistance to change. J. Clean. Prod. 168,(163-172).

Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., Glazewski, K. D., Newby, T. J., & Ertmer, P. A. (2010). Teacher value beliefs associated with using technology: Addressing professional and student needs. Computers & Education,55(3), 1321–1335.

Öner, N. (1987). Kültürlerarası ölçek uyarlamasında bir yöntembilim modeli. Psikoloji Dergisi, 6(21), 80-83.

P21Skills. (2013) Framework for 21st Century Learning. Retrieved 11th of January 2019 from:

P. Mishra & M.J. Koehler, (2006). “Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge,” Teachers College Record, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 1017–1054.

P. Serow, & R. Callingham, (2008). “Introduction to Interactive Whiteboard Technology in the Primary Classroom: three case studies,”Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, pp. 453-459,

Perkmen, S., & Tezci, E. (2011). Eğitimde teknoloji entegrasyonu. Ankara: Pegem A Publishing.

Polly, D., McGee, J. R., & Sullivan, C. (2010). Employing technology-rich mathematical tasks to develop teachers’ technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK). Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 29(4), 455–472.

Riandi, R., Apriliana, V., & Purwianingsih, W. (2018). The Analysis of 21st Century Teachers’ Ability in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. In 2nd International Conference on Education Innovation (ICEI 2018). Atlantis Press.

Rosnaini, & I. Mohd Arif, (2010).“Impact of Training and Experience of using ICT on In-service Teachers Basic ICT Literacy,” Malaysian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 10, pp. 5-10,

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling. Psychology Press.

Schmidt DA, Baran E, Thompson AD, Mishra P, Koehler MJ, & Shin TS.(2009) Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) the development and validation of an assessment instrument for preservice teachers. Journal of research on Technology in Education. 1;42(2):123-49.

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational researcher, 15(2), 4-14.

S. Pamuk, M. Ergun, R. Cakir, H.B. Yilmaz, & C. Ayas, (2015). “Exploring relationships among TPACK components and development of the TPACK instrument,” Education and Information Technologies, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 241–263.

T.C. Hammond, & M. M. Manfra, (2009). “Giving, Prompting and Making: aligning technology and pedagogy within TPACK for social studies instructions,” Journal of Contemporary Issues in Technology and Social Studies Teacher Education [Online], vol. 9, pp. 160-185,

Tezbaşaran, A. A. (1997). Likert tipi ölçek geliştirme klavuzu. Türk Psikologlar Derneği.

Tondeur, J., Scherer, R., Siddiq, F., & Baran, E. (2017). A comprehensive investigation of TPACK within pre-service teachers' ICT profiles: Mind the gap. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3), 46-60.

Tondeur, J., Van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2007). Curricula and the use of ICT in education: Two worlds

apart?. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(6), 962-976.

Valtonen, T., Sointu, E., Kukkonen, J., Kontkanen, S., Lambert, M. C., & Mäkitalo-Siegl, K. (2017). TPACK updated to measure pre-service teachers' twenty-first century skills. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3).

van Driel, J. H., N. Verloop, & W. de Vos. (1998). “Developing Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 35 (6): 673–695.

Voogt, J., Fisser, P., Roblin, N. P., Tondeur, J., & van Braak, J. (2013). Technological pedagogical content knowledge–a review of the literature. Journal of computer assisted learning, 29(2), 109-121.

W. D. Haddad, & A. Draxler,(2002). Technology for education: potentials, parameters and prospects. Washington DC: AED.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

 ISSN: 1305-3515