Developing a Phenomenographic Argument for The Exit-Level Prospective Teachers’ Conceptions About Teaching and Learning

Somayyeh Radmard, Yılmaz Soysal


This study presents a phenomenographic argument regarding Turkish prospective teachers’ (PTs) beliefs about teaching and learning varying according to their experience. A phenomenographic research study was conducted in order to capture and interpret the PTs’ explanations and documentation regarding the conceptions of instruction. The participants were 54 senior pre-service student teachers. Qualitative data was gathered through phenomenographic interviewing. The data was analysed interpretatively, and categories of description were derived to establish an outcome space for supporting the phenomenographic argument. The outcome space incorporates three hierarchical levels of the PTs’ conceptions of teaching and learning: subject-centred teaching, individual-centred learning, and learner-centred teaching-learning. It was revealed that the PTs held considerably conventional, idealistic teaching and learning conceptions. Moreover, there was a sharp distinction between the individual-centred and learner-centred conceptions of the participant PTs. Concrete recommendations for teacher preparation are offered to enhance the PTs’ shallow conceptions of teaching and learning.  


conceptions; teaching; learning; prospective teachers; phenomenography

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