Inferences from variety of implementations in learner centered approach

Sevinç Tunalı


From person to society there are many different layers of the meaning of education. Nevertheless, none of them is unnecessary and superficial. This meaning intensiveness is one of the main problems of education. For many years education in different regions served for variety of functions. Sometimes it become an agent for economic productivity, sometimes a tool for hustings and indoctrination. Educational discourse in Turkey have been turned to “putting learner first” in the education system for last decade. As a result, in 2007 a constructivist curriculum began to implement for the sake of learner-centered education. This inference lead researchers goes deeper to investigate what can be the implications for the learner-centered education. To this attempt a fieldtrip was organized to gather data from different alternative schools in the U.S. that main orientation is learner centered education. In these schools, interviews and unstructured observations were conducted to gain wider perspective on milieu. This study seeks to provide inferences from variety of schools in order to apply the learner-centered education. 


Learner-centered approach; Alternative schools; Qualitative study

Full Text:



Bogdan, R., & Biklen, S.K. (1992). Qualitative research for education. USA: Allyn and Bacon.

Brown, K. L. (2003). From Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Curriculum: Improving Learning in Diverse Classrooms. Education. vol. 124. no.1

Cross, K. P. (1975). Learner Centered Curricula. In W. V. Cyckman (Ed.), Learner Centered Reform (pp.54-65). San Francisco : Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Dunn, R., & Dunn, K. (1992). Teaching elementary students through their individual learning styles: Practical approaches for grades 3–6. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Ellis, A. K. (2004). Examplars of Curriculum Theory. Eye on education Inc.

Ellis, A. K., (2004) Examplars of Curriculum Theory. New York: Eye On Education Inc

Frankel, J., & Wallen, N. (2000). How to design and evaluate research in education. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

Gardner, H. (2001). Intelligence reframed. New York: Basic Books.

Gregorc, A. (1979). Learning/teaching styles: Potent forces behind them. Educational Leadership, 36, 234–236.

Guba, E.G. (1981), Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries, Educational Communication and Technology Journal 29,p.75–91.

Mattke, H. J. (1994). Waldorf Education World-Wide. Freie Waldorfschule Uhlandshöhe, Stuttgart. ISBN 0-88010-406-6.

Mulhall A. (2003) In The Field: Notes On Observation In Qualitative Research. Journal of Advanced Nursing 41(3), 306–313.

Nicol,J & Taplin, J. T. (2012). Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach. Routledge Publishing. ISBN:978-0-415-59716-6.

Nicol,J. (2010). Bringing the Steiner Waldorf Approach to your Early Years Practice. Routledge Publishing. ISBN:0-415-56501-4.

O’Neil, W. F. (1983). Rethinking Education: Selected Readings in the Educational Ideologies. Kendall/ Hunt Publishing. ISBN:0-8403-2890-7.

OECD Report (2010) Trends Shaping Education. OECD Schooling for tomorrow Series, Paris: OECD.

Ornstein, A.C. & Hunkins, F.P. (1998). Curriculum: Foundations, principles and issues. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Ornstein, A.C. & Levin, D. U. (1993). Foundations of Education (5. ed.). Boston : Houghton Mifflin

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Punch, K. (2009), Introduction to Research Methods in Education, London: Sage

Rousseau,J.J. (1941). Emile. Hasan Ali Yücel Klasikler Dizisi.

Schiro, M. S., (2008) CurriculumTheory: Conflicting Visions and Enduring Concerns. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Schiro, M.S. (2008). Curriculum Theory: Conflicting Visions and Enduring Concerns. Sage Publication.

Shenton, A. K. (2004) Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for Information 22 (2004) 63–75

Sternberg, R., Torff, B., & Grigorenko, E. (1998). Teaching triarchically improves school achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(3), 374–384.

Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World.

Tomlinson, C. A. & Imbeau, M. B. (2010) Leading and Managing a Differentiated Classroom. ASCD Member Books, USA.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

 ISSN: 1305-3515