The Predictive Role of Temperamental Traits and Inbibitory-Control Skills on Ego Resiliency of Preschool Children

DİLAN BAYINDIR, Asude Balaban Dağal, Ozana Ural


Ego resiliency means positive development tendency despite risk factors. Resilient children are expected to cope with individual, familial and enviromental risk factors, so developing resiliency could be accepted as a developmental task for children. The aim of the study is to investigate the predictive role of two selected individual variables; inhibitory control skills and temperament charecteristics of preschool children, on their ego resiliency levels. The study is in survey method. The sample of the study includes 55-73 months old 78 children, who attend preschools and their mothers. The data collection tools that are used in this study are; The Personal Information Form, The Short Temperament Scale for Children and Children’s Ego Resiliency Scale (Mother Form). Also two tasks, named as Green-Red Signs and Touch Your Toe were used to assess preschoolers’ inbibitory control skills.  When all the variables are considered together in the regression analysis, it has been found that the inhibitory control skills are significantly predictive of children's ego resiliency, but temperamental characteristics are not.

Keywords: Ego Resiliency, Inhibitory Control, Temperament, Preschool Children

Tam Metin:

PDF (English)


Altan, Ö. (2006). The effects of maternal socialization and temperament on children’s emotion regulation. Unpublished master thesis, Koç University, Social Sciences Institude, İstanbul: Turkey.

Alvord M. K. & Grados, J. J. (2005). Enhancing resilience in children: A proactive approach.

Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(3), 238–245,

Balaban-Dağal, A., Önder, A. & Bayındır, D. (2016). Okul öncesi dönemde çocukların mizaç özellikleri ve ebeveynlik stillerinin çocukların ego sağlamlık düzeyleri üzerindeki yordayıcı etkisi (The predictive effect of preschool children’s temperament characteristics and parenting styles of mothers on ego resiliency level of children), 3rd International Eurasian Educational Research Congress.

Baydar, N., Küntay, A., Gökşen, F., Yağmurlu, B. & Cemalcılar, Z. (2010). Türkiye’de erken çocukluk gelişim ekolojileri araştırması (Turkey Early Childhood Development Ecologies Research), E.T. 31.09.2014.

Bayındır, D., Önder, A. & Balaban Dağal, A. (2016, Mayıs). Temperament and Resiliency as Predictor Factors of Preschoolers’ School Readiness. X.European Conference on Social and Behavioral Science, Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, 19-22 May 2016.

Benzies, K. & Mychasiuk, R. (2009). Fostering family resiliency: A review of the key protective factors. Child & Family Social Work, 14, 103–114.

Block, J. & Block, J. H. (2006). Venturing a 30-year longitudinal study. American Psychologist, 61, 315–327. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.61.4.315.

Brown, J., Barbarin, O. & Scott, K. (2013). Socioemotional trajectories in black boys between kindergarten and the fifth grade: the role of cognitive skills and family in promoting resiliency. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83, (2,3) 176–184. doi: 10.1111/ajop.12027.

Cameron-Ponitz, C.E., McClelland, M.M., Jewkes, A.M., McDonald-Connor-C., Farris, C.L. & Morrison, F. J. (2008). Touch your toes! Developing a direct measure of behavioral regulation in early childhood, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 141-158.

Coyne, L. W. & Thompson, A. D. (2011). Maternal depression, locus of control, and emotion regulatory strategy as predictors of preschoolers’ internalizing problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 873–883. doi:10.1007/s10826-011-9455-2.

Cumberland-Li, A., Eisenberg, N., & Reiser, M. (2004). Relations of young children’s agreeableness and resiliency to effortful control. Social Development, 13, 193–212.

Derryberry, D. & Reed, M. A. (1996). Regulatory processes and the development of cognitive representations. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 215−234.

Eisenberg, N., Haugen, R., Spinrad, T.L., Hofer, C., Chassin, L., Zhou, Q et al. (2010). Relations of Temperament to Maladjustment and Ego Resiliency in At-risk Children, Social Development, 19 (3), 577-600.

Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., Fabes, R. A., Reiser, M., Cumberland, S. A., Valiente, C., et al. (2004). The relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children. Child Development, 75, 25–46.

Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Morris, A. S. (2002). Regulation, resiliency, and quality of social functioning. Self and Identity, 1, 121–128.

Eisenberg, N. Zhou, Q., Losoya, S.H., Fabes, R.A., Shepard, S. A., Murphy, B.C. et al.(2003). The relations of parenting, effortful control, and ego control to children’s emotional expressivity, Child Development, 74, 875–895.

Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C. & Eggum, N.D. (2010). Self regulation and school readiness, Early Education and Development, 21:5, 681-698.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Guthrie, I. K., Murphy, B. C., Maszk, P., Holmgren, R. & Suh, K. (1996), The relations of regulation and emotionality to problem behavior in elementary school children, Development and Psychopathology, 8, 141–162.

Gizir, C. A. (2007). Psikolojik sağlamlık, risk faktörleri ve koruyucu faktörler üzerinde bir derleme çalışması. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 3, 28, 113-128.

Greenberg, M. T. (2006). Promoting resilience in children and youth: Preventive interventions and their interface with neuroscience. Annals New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 139–150.

Hutchinson, A.K., Stuart, A.D., & Pretorius, H.G. (2010). Biological contributions to wellbeing: The relationships amongst temperament, character strengths and resilience. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36, 1-10. DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v36i2.844.

Lengua, L.J., Sandler, I.N., West, S.G., Wolchik, S.A. & Curran, P.J. (1999). Emotionality and self-regulation, threat appraisal, and coping in children of divorce. Development and Psychopathology, 11.15-37.

Luthar, S. S. (1993). Annotation: Methodological and conceptual issues in research on childhood resilience. Journal of Child Psychol Psychiatry, 34: 441–454..

Luthar, S. S. & Zelazo, B. Z. (2003). Resilience and Vulnerability: An Integrative Review. Ed. S. Luthar, Resilience and Vulnerability: Adaptation in The Context of Childhood Adversities. Cambridge: Cambridge Üniversitesi Yayınları.

Kochanska, G., Murray, K. & Coy, K. C. (1997). Inhibitory control as a contributor to conscience in childhood: From toddler to early school age. Child Development, 68, 263–277.

Kochanska, G. & Knaack, A. (2003). Effortful control as a personality characteristic of young children: antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Personality,71(6), 1087-1112.

Kwok, O., Hughes, J. N. & Luo, W. (2007). Role of resilient personality on lower achieving first grade students' current and future achievement, Journal of School Psychology, 45, 61-82.

McClelland, M.M. & Cameron, C.E. (2012). Self regulation in early childhood: Improving conceptual clarity and developing ecologically valid measures, Child Development Perspectives, 6 (2), 136–142.

Moilanen, K. L., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F. & Wilson, M. (2010). Longitudinal growth and predictors of inhibitory control in early childhood. Social Development, 19, 326–347.

Sanson, A. V., Smart, D. F., Prior, M., Oberklaid, F.& Pedlow, R. (1994). The structure of temperament from age 3 to 7 years: Age, sex, and sociodemographic influences. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40, 233-252.

Sipahi, B, Yurtkoru, S. E. & Çinko, M. (2006). Sosyal bilimlerde SPSS’le veri analizi. İstanbul: Beta Publishing.

Prince-Embury, S. (2015). Assessing personal resiliency in school settings: The resiliency scales for children and adolescents. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 25 (1). 55-65.

Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.), Handbook of child psychology. Vol. 3. Social, emotional, personality development (pp. 99–166). New York: Wiley.

Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A. & Evans, D. E. (2000). Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 122−135. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.78.1.12 l .

Sipahi, B, Yurtkoru, S. E. & Çinko, M. (2006). Sosyal bilimlerde SPSS’le veri analizi. İstanbul: Beta Publishing.

Taylor, Z.E., Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., Eggum, N.D. & Sulik, M.J. (2013). The relations of ego-resiliency and emotion socialization to the development of empathy and prosocial behavior across early childhood, Emotion, 13(5): 822–831., doi: 10.1037/a0032894.

Taylor, Z.E., Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T.L. & Widaman, K.F. (2013). Longitudinal relations of intrusive parenting and effortful control to ego-resiliency during early childhood, Child Development, 84 (4), 1145-1151.

Olson, S. L., Bates, J. E., Sandy, J. M. & Schilling, E. M. (2002). Early developmental precursors of impulsive and inattentive behavior: From infancy to middle childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 435−447.

Olson, S. L., Schilling, E. M. ve Bates, J. E. (1999). Measurement of impulsivity: Construct coherence, longitudinal stability, and relationship with externalizing problems in middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 151–165.

Önder, A. & Gülay-Ogelman, H. (2011). The reliability-validity study for the Ego Resiliency Scale (Teacher-Mother-Father Forms) for children aged between 5 and 6, International Refereed Academic Social Sciences Journal, 2(1): 5-21.

Özdamar, K. (2004). Paket Programlar ile İstatistiksel Veri Analizi 1 (5. Edi). Eskişehir: Kaan Publishing.

Utendale, W. T., Hubert, M., Saint-Pierre, A. B. & Hastings, P. D. (2011). Neurocognitive development and externalizing problems: The role of inhibitory control deficits from 4 to 6 years. Aggressive Behavior, 37, 476–488.

Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C. & Parker, G. R. (1991). Developmental and family milieu interview correlates of resilience in urban children who have experienced major life-stress. American Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 405-426.

Yağmurlu, B., & Sanson, A. (2009). Parenting and temperament as predictors of prosocial behavior in Australian and Turkish Australian children. Australian Journal of Psychology, 61(2), 77-88.

Yağmurlu, B., Sanson, A. & Bahar Köymen, S. (2005). Ebeveynlerin ve Çocuk Mizacının Olumlu Sosyal Davranış Gelişimine Etkileri: Zihin Kuramının Belirleyici Rolü, (Effects of Parenting and Child Temperament on the Development of Prosocial Behavior: The Mediating Role of Theory of Mind), Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 20(55), 1-20.


  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.




Creative Commons Lisansı

İlköğretim Online Dergisi Creative Commons Alıntı-Gayriticari 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.

ISSN: 1305-3515