Otizmli Çocuklar ve Alternatif Destekleyici İletişim Sistemleri: Alanyazın İncelemesi

Serhat Odluyurt, Hülya Ceren Tutuk, Tezcan Çavuşoğlu

Öz


Konuşamayan veya iletişimi işlevine uygun kullanamayan otizmli çocukların iletişim kurabilmeleri için alternatif ve destekleyici iletişim sistemlerinden (ADİS) yararlanılabilmektedir. ADİS, sözel iletişim becerilerinde geriliği olan çocukların hâlihazırdaki iletişim becerilerinin yerine geçmeyi ya da desteklemeyi amaçlayan sistemler olarak tanımlanmaktadır Bu çalışmanın amacı; otizmli çocuklara iletişim becerilerini desteklemek üzere ADİS yöntemlerinin kullanıldığı araştırmalara ilişkin güncel bilgi sunmak ve sonuçlara dayalı önerilerde bulunmaktır. Bu amaçla; otizmli çocukların farklı düzeylerdeki iletişim performansları üzerinde, ADİS yöntemlerinin etkililiğini değerlendiren ve uluslararası hakemli dergilerde 2010-2017 yılları arasında yayımlanmış toplam 30 makale incelenmiştir. Araştırmalara ERIC, Akademik Search Complete ve Google Scholar veri tabanlarında yapılan elektronik taramalar sonucu ulaşılmıştır. Belirlenen makaleler temel betimsel özellikleri, makalelerin yöntemsel özellikleri ve makalelerin amaç ve sonuç bulguları kategorileri açısından incelenmiştir. Sonuçta, ADİS uygulamalarının otizmli çocuklara çok farklı düzeylerde iletişim becerilerin öğretiminde etkili olarak kullanılabilecek bir yöntem olduğu ortaya konmuştur. Bu çalışmada, incelenen araştırmalardan elde edilen bulgular yorumlanmış, uygulamacılara ve ileri araştırmalara yönelik önerilerde bulunulmuştur. 


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